- Ecological engineering.
- Coastal planning.
- Renewable maritime energies.
- Ecosystemic and integrated approaches including the analysis of the effect of marine protected areas and marine parks.
Terms of reference: How to implement management policies at different scales whose purpose is to guarantee a more ecological governance for a more human conservation. How to establish a harmonious cohabitation of the different uses in a space subjected to multiple constraints. Some EU Framework Directives such as the WFD (Water Framework Directive), the MSFD (Marine Strategy Framework Directive) and the recent SMPD (Framework Directive for the Spatial Marine Planning) make it possible to evaluate the good state of inshore, estuarine and coastal water masses, to measure the impacts of anthropogenic pressures and to establish co-habitation policies for coastal marine uses up to the limit of the Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ). Japan refers to its “basic plan for the Environment”. These guidelines are based on transdisciplinary scientific studies, in an integrated ecosystem approach, foreshadowing what might be a coastal and operational oceanography, aimed at feeding the Integrated Sea and Coastal Management (ISCM) approach and political decisions that relate to it. This is the topic of the fourth session. Here the term “communities” is taken in a broad sense and refers to both animal and plant communities and human communities.
- New tools and networks for observation and modeling.
- Role of research in operational approaches (eg: Operational coastal oceanography, MSFD, WFD,…).
- Risks to resources and ecossystems.
- Risks to human health (chemical and biological aspects).
- Ecosystem resilience.
Terms of reference: In a context of rapid change, human societies are planning their future actions to reduce the pressures and / or adaptation factors by integrating the constraint of the impacts suffered. It is therefore particularly crucial to identify and better understand the relationships between factors of environmental pressure accumulated at different scales of space and time and their current or potential impacts. These relationships may be analyzed during this third session in terms of hazard probabilities, vulnerability and risks both on biodiversity and on the socio-ecosystems.
- Marine ecosystems under pressure of climate change.
- Coastline and coastal ecosystem modifications.
- Coastal ecosystems under toxic pressure.
- Impact of global change on marine living resources and their exploitations.
Terms of reference: Due to sea-level rise, the occurrence of extreme events (storms, tsunamis), and human activities, coastal areas are extremely vulnerable to erosion. On the other hand, coastal ecosystems undergo warming and modification of physical, chemical and biological characteristics of waters (warming, marine intrusion, acidification). Furthermore, they are often the receptacle of many sources of chemical and biological pollution which, in addition to global and regional pressures, degrade them and significantly reduce their resilience and ecological functions, based on a very high density and diversity of marine organisms. This second session will focus on the analysis and quantification of impacts at different scales of time and space and at different levels of complexity on the biological resources and socio-ecosystems that depend on them.
- Climate-ocean and ocean-atmosphere interactions, from global to local.
- Changes in biogeochemical cycles, coastal inputs and acidification of seas and oceans.
- Biological and chemical pollutions.
- Sea level, littoralization and artificialization of the coastal strip
Terms of reference: Coastal and estuarine environments are highly productive ecosystems that are interconnected and constrained by more oceanic (sea basin) and more continental (watershed) environments, which are themselves subject to the pressure of global climate change and influences of local and regional anthropogenic factors. This symposium session will focus on the identification, quantification and analysis of pressure factors, from global to local level, and assessment of their individual and potential combination effects.